By: Joey Aguirre,

As a transaction passes through the Automated Clearing House, it can be returned for a variety of reasons.

With nearly 80 ACH return codes, we’ve compiled a list with associated descriptions to reference that explains the return code.

A benefit of Dwolla’s API is automating the processing and notification of payment returns and corrections for businesses. At Dwolla, we help businesses navigate the ACH network to avoid the headaches of managing this process.

READ MORE: Why ACH payments go bad

Dwolla helps businesses avoid ACH returns by requiring a sending customer to verify its bank information is entered correctly before initiating a transaction.

In addition, Dwolla offers customers the ability to test how their tech stack handles a failure, should an ACH return occur.

READ MORE: Testing ACH returns in the Dwolla sandbox

The ACH return codes are listed below:

ACH Return Codes

RO1 – Insufficient funds

The available balance is not sufficient to cover the amount of the debit entry.

RO2 – Bank account closed

A previously active account has been closed by action of the customer or receiving depository financial institution (RDFI).

RO3 – No bank account/unable to locate account

Account number does not correspond to the individual identified in the entry or the account number designated is not an open account.

R04 – Invalid account number

The account number structure is not valid. The entry may fail the check digit validation or may contain an incorrect number of digits.

R06 – Returned per ODFI request

The originating depository financial institution (ODFI) has requested that the receiving depository financial institution (RDFI) return the ACH entry as an erroneous entry. If the RDFI agrees to return the entry, the ODFI must indemnify the RDFI in accordance with guidelines.

R07 – Authorization revoked by customer

Receiver who previously authorized an entry has revoked authorization with the originator for this debit entry.

R08 – Payment stopped

Receiver of a recurring debit has stopped payment of an entry.

R09 – Uncollected funds

Collected funds are not sufficient for payment of the debit entry.

R10 – Customer advises unauthorized, improper, ineligible or part of an incomplete transaction

Receiver has advised RDFI that originator is not authorized to debit the bank account.

R11 – Check truncation entry return

To be used when returning a check truncation entry. This reason for return should be used only if no other return reason code is applicable.

R12 – Branch sold to another DFI

A financial institution received an entry to an account that was sold to another financial institution.

R13 – RDFI not qualified to participate

Financial institution does not receive commercial ACH entries.

R14 – Representative payee deceased or unable to continue in that capacity

Representative payee is a person either deceased or no longer able to continue in original capacity (i.e. legally incapacitated adults or minors), while the beneficiary is not deceased.

R15 – Beneficiary or account holder deceased

There are multiple descriptions: (1) The beneficiary is deceased. The beneficiary may or may not be the account holder; (2) The account holder (acting in a non-representative payee capacity) is an owner of the account and is deceased.

R16 – Account frozen/Entry returned per OFAC instruction

There are multiple descriptions: 1) Access to account is restricted due to specific action taken by the RDFI or legal action 2) OFAC has instructed the RDFI or gateway to return the entry.

R17 – File record edit criteria

Fields can’t be processed by RDFI.

R18 – Improper effective entry date

The effective entry date for a credit entry is more than two banking days after the banking day of processing as established by the originating ACH operator or the effective date is after window of processing.

R19 – Amount field error

Amount field is non-numeric, zero or exceeds $25,000.

R20 – Non-transaction account

The ACH entry destined for a non-transaction account (i.e.an account against which transactions are prohibited or limited).

R21 – Invalid company ID number

Company identification information is not valid.

R22 – Invalid individual ID number

Individual ID used by receiver is incorrect.

R23 – Credit entry refused by receiver

Receiver returned entry because a minimum or exact amount not remitted. Any credit entry that is refused by the receiver may be returned by the RDFI.

R24 – Duplicate entry

RDFI has received what appears to be a duplicate entry (i.e. the trace number, date, dollar amount and/or other data matches another transaction).

R25 – Addenda error

Addenda record indicator value is incorrect, with code invalid, out of sequence or missing.

R26 – Mandatory field error

Erroneous data or missing data in a mandatory field.

R27 – Trace number error

Original entry trace number is not present or does not correspond correctly in the addenda record on a return or notification of change entry.

R28 – Transit routing number check digit error

Check digit for the routing number is invalid.

R29 – Corporate customer advises not authorized

RDFI has been notified by receiver (non-consumer) that a specific transaction is unauthorized.

R30 – RDFI not participant in check truncation program

RDFI does not participate in a check truncation program.

R31 – Permissible return entry (CCD and CTX only)

RDFI may return a CCD or CTX entry that the ODFI agrees to accept.

R32 – RDFI non-settlement

RDFI is not able to settle the entry.

R33 – Return of XCK entry

RDFI determines at its sole discretion to return an XCK entry.

R34 – Limited participation DFI

The RDFI participation has been limited by a federal or state supervisor.

R35 – Return of improper debit entry

Debit entries are not permitted for CIE entries or to loan accounts.

R36 – Return of improper credit entry

ACH credit entries are not permitted for use with ARC, BOC, POP, RCK, TEL and XCK.

R37 – Source document presented for payment

Source document to which an ARC, BOX, or POP entry relates has been presented for payment.

These return codes are included for reference and less common in our network:

R38 – Stops payment on source document.

R39 – Improper source document/source document presented for payment.

R40 – Return of ENR entry by federal government agency.

R41 – Invalid transaction code.

R42 – Routing number/check digit error.

R43 – Invalid DFI account number.

R44 – Invalid individual ID number/identification number.

R45 – Invalid individual name/company name.

R46 – Invalid representative payee indicator.

R47 – Duplicate enrollment.

R50 – State law affecting RCK acceptance.

R51 – Item related to RCK entry is ineligible or RCK entry is improper.

R52 – Stop payment on item related to RCK entry.

R53 – Item and RCK entry presented for payment.

R61 – Misrouted return.

R62 – Return of erroneous or reversing debt.

R67 – Duplicate return.

R68 – Untimely return.

R69 – Field error(s).

R70 – Permissible return entry not accepted/return not requested by ODFI.

R71 – Misrouted dishonored return.

R72 – Untimely dishonored return.

R73 – Timely original return.

R74 – Corrected return.

R75 – Return not duplicate.

R76 – No errors found.

R77 – Non-acceptance of R62 dishonored return.

R80 – IAT entry coding errors.

R81 – Non-participant in IAT program.

These are international ACH return codes, not currently applicable to a Dwolla transaction.

R82 – Invalid foreign receiving DFI identification.

R83 – Foreign receiving DFI unable to settle.

R84 – Entry not processed by gateway.

R85 – Incorrectly coded outbound international payment.

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Financial institutions play an important role in the Dwolla network.

Dwolla, Inc. is an agent of Veridian Credit Union and Compass Bank and all funds associated with your account in the Dwolla network are held in pooled accounts at Veridian Credit Union and Compass Bank. These funds are not eligible for individual insurance, including FDIC insurance and may not be eligible for share insurance by the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund. Dwolla, Inc. is the operator of a software platform that communicates user instructions for funds transfers to Veridian Credit Union and Compass Bank.