As a transaction passes through the Automated Clearing House, it can be returned for a variety of reasons.
With nearly 80 ACH return codes, we’ve compiled a list with associated descriptions to reference that explains the return code.

A benefit of Dwolla’s API is automating the processing and notification of payment returns and corrections for businesses. At Dwolla, we help businesses navigate the ACH network to avoid the headaches of managing this process.

READ MORE: Why ACH payments go bad

Dwolla helps businesses avoid ACH returns by requiring a sending customer to verify its bank information is entered correctly before initiating a transaction.

In addition, Dwolla offers customers the ability to test how their tech stack handles a failure, should an ACH return occur.

READ MORE: Testing ACH returns in the Dwolla sandbox

The ACH return codes are listed below:

ACH Return Codes

RO1 – Insufficient funds
The available balance is not sufficient to cover the amount of the debit entry.

RO2 – Bank account closed
A previously active account has been closed by action of the customer or receiving depository financial institution (RDFI).

RO3 – No bank account/unable to locate account
Account number does not correspond to the individual identified in the entry or the account number designated is not an open account.

R04 – Invalid account number
The account number structure is not valid. The entry may fail the check digit validation or may contain an incorrect number of digits.

R06 – Returned per ODFI request
The originating depository financial institution (ODFI) has requested that the receiving depository financial institution (RDFI) return the ACH entry as an erroneous entry. If the RDFI agrees to return the entry, the ODFI must indemnify the RDFI in accordance with guidelines.

R07 – Authorization revoked by customer
Receiver who previously authorized an entry has revoked authorization with the originator for this debit entry.

R08 – Payment stopped
Receiver of a recurring debit has stopped payment of an entry.

R09 – Uncollected funds
Collected funds are not sufficient for payment of the debit entry.

R10 – Customer advises unauthorized, improper, ineligible or part of an incomplete transaction
Receiver has advised RDFI that originator is not authorized to debit the bank account.

R11 – Check truncation entry return
To be used when returning a check truncation entry. This reason for return should be used only if no other return reason code is applicable.

R12 – Branch sold to another DFI
A financial institution received an entry to an account that was sold to another financial institution.

R13 – RDFI not qualified to participate
Financial institution does not receive commercial ACH entries.

R14 – Representative payee deceased or unable to continue in that capacity
Representative payee is a person either deceased or no longer able to continue in original capacity (i.e. legally incapacitated adults or minors), while the beneficiary is not deceased.

R15 – Beneficiary or account holder deceased
There are multiple descriptions: (1) The beneficiary is deceased. The beneficiary may or may not be the account holder; (2) The account holder (acting in a non-representative payee capacity) is an owner of the account and is deceased.

R16 – Account frozen/Entry returned per OFAC instruction
There are multiple descriptions: 1) Access to account is restricted due to specific action taken by the RDFI or legal action 2) OFAC has instructed the RDFI or gateway to return the entry.

R17 – File record edit criteria
Fields can’t be processed by RDFI.

R18 – Improper effective entry date
The effective entry date for a credit entry is more than two banking days after the banking day of processing as established by the originating ACH operator or the effective date is after window of processing.

R19 – Amount field error
Amount field is non-numeric, zero or exceeds $25,000.

R20 – Non-transaction account
The ACH entry destined for a non-transaction account ( account against which transactions are prohibited or limited).

R21 – Invalid company ID number
Company identification information is not valid.

R22 – Invalid individual ID number
Individual ID used by receiver is incorrect.

R23 – Credit entry refused by receiver
Receiver returned entry because a minimum or exact amount not remitted. Any credit entry that is refused by the receiver may be returned by the RDFI.

R24 – Duplicate entry
RDFI has received what appears to be a duplicate entry (i.e. the trace number, date, dollar amount and/or other data matches another transaction).

R25 – Addenda error
Addenda record indicator value is incorrect, with code invalid, out of sequence or missing.

R26 – Mandatory field error
Erroneous data or missing data in a mandatory field.

R27 – Trace number error
Original entry trace number is not present or does not correspond correctly in the addenda record on a return or notification of change entry.

R28 – Transit routing number check digit error
Check digit for the routing number is invalid.

R29 – Corporate customer advises not authorized
RDFI has been notified by receiver (non-consumer) that a specific transaction is unauthorized.

R30 – RDFI not participant in check truncation program
RDFI does not participate in a check truncation program.

R31 – Permissible return entry (CCD and CTX only)
RDFI may return a CCD or CTX entry that the ODFI agrees to accept.

R32 – RDFI non-settlement
RDFI is not able to settle the entry.

R33 – Return of XCK entry
RDFI determines at its sole discretion to return an XCK entry.

R34 – Limited participation DFI
The RDFI participation has been limited by a federal or state supervisor.

R35 – Return of improper debit entry
Debit entries are not permitted for CIE entries or to loan accounts.

R36 – Return of improper credit entry
ACH credit entries are not permitted for use with ARC, BOC, POP, RCK, TEL and XCK.

R37 – Source document presented for payment
Source document to which an ARC, BOX, or POP entry relates has been presented for payment.

These return codes are included for reference and less common in our network:

R38 – Stops payment on source document.

R39 – Improper source document/source document presented for payment.

– Return of ENR entry by federal government agency.

– Invalid transaction code.

– Routing number/check digit error.

– Invalid DFI account number.

– Invalid individual ID number/identification number.

– Invalid individual name/company name.

– Invalid representative payee indicator.

– Duplicate enrollment.

– State law affecting RCK acceptance.

– Item related to RCK entry is ineligible or RCK entry is improper.

– Stop payment on item related to RCK entry.

– Item and RCK entry presented for payment.

R61 – Misrouted return.

– Return of erroneous or reversing debt.

– Duplicate return.

– Untimely return.

– Field error(s).

– Permissible return entry not accepted/return not requested by ODFI.

– Misrouted dishonored return.

– Untimely dishonored return.

– Timely original return.

– Corrected return.

– Return not duplicate.

– No errors found.

– Non-acceptance of R62 dishonored return.

– IAT entry coding errors.

– Non-participant in IAT program.

These are international ACH return codes, not currently applicable to a Dwolla transaction.

R82 – Invalid foreign receiving DFI identification.

– Foreign receiving DFI unable to settle.

– Entry not processed by gateway.

– Incorrectly coded outbound international payment.

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